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From Molecule to Metaphor

From Molecule to Metaphor PDF Author: Jerome Feldman
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262296888
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 384

Book Description
In From Molecule to Metaphor, Jerome Feldman proposes a theory of language and thought that treats language not as an abstract symbol system but as a human biological ability that can be studied as a function of the brain, as vision and motor control are studied. This theory, he writes, is a "bridging theory" that works from extensive knowledge at two ends of a causal chain to explicate the links between. Although the cognitive sciences are revealing much about how our brains produce language and thought, we do not yet know exactly how words are understood or have any methodology for finding out. Feldman develops his theory in computer simulations—formal models that suggest ways that language and thought may be realized in the brain. Combining key findings and theories from biology, computer science, linguistics, and psychology, Feldman synthesizes a theory by exhibiting programs that demonstrate the required behavior while remaining consistent with the findings from all disciplines. After presenting the essential results on language, learning, neural computation, the biology of neurons and neural circuits, and the mind/brain, Feldman introduces specific demonstrations and formal models of such topics as how children learn their first words, words for abstract and metaphorical concepts, understanding stories, and grammar (including "hot-button" issues surrounding the innateness of human grammar). With this accessible, comprehensive book Feldman offers readers who want to understand how our brains create thought and language a theory of language that is intuitively plausible and also consistent with existing scientific data at all levels.

From Molecule to Metaphor

From Molecule to Metaphor PDF Author: Jerome Feldman
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262296888
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 384

Book Description
In From Molecule to Metaphor, Jerome Feldman proposes a theory of language and thought that treats language not as an abstract symbol system but as a human biological ability that can be studied as a function of the brain, as vision and motor control are studied. This theory, he writes, is a "bridging theory" that works from extensive knowledge at two ends of a causal chain to explicate the links between. Although the cognitive sciences are revealing much about how our brains produce language and thought, we do not yet know exactly how words are understood or have any methodology for finding out. Feldman develops his theory in computer simulations—formal models that suggest ways that language and thought may be realized in the brain. Combining key findings and theories from biology, computer science, linguistics, and psychology, Feldman synthesizes a theory by exhibiting programs that demonstrate the required behavior while remaining consistent with the findings from all disciplines. After presenting the essential results on language, learning, neural computation, the biology of neurons and neural circuits, and the mind/brain, Feldman introduces specific demonstrations and formal models of such topics as how children learn their first words, words for abstract and metaphorical concepts, understanding stories, and grammar (including "hot-button" issues surrounding the innateness of human grammar). With this accessible, comprehensive book Feldman offers readers who want to understand how our brains create thought and language a theory of language that is intuitively plausible and also consistent with existing scientific data at all levels.

Metaphor

Metaphor PDF Author: L. David Ritchie
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139619926
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages :

Book Description
'Metaphor', a form of figurative language in which one thing or idea is expressed in terms of another, is becoming an increasingly popular area of study, as it is relevant to the work of semanticists, pragmatists, discourse analysts and also those working at the interface of language and literature and in other disciplines such as philosophy and psychology. This book provides a summary, critique and comparison of the most important theories on how metaphors are used and understood, drawing on research from linguistics, psychology and other disciplines. In order to ground the discussion in actual language use, the book uses examples from discourse, including casual conversations, political speeches, literature, humor, religion and science. Written in a non-technical style, the book includes clear definitions, examples, discussion questions and a glossary, making it ideal for graduate-level seminars.

Metaphor, Nation and Discourse

Metaphor, Nation and Discourse PDF Author: Ljiljana Šarić
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company
ISBN: 9027262675
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 356

Book Description
This edited volume examines how metaphors and related phenomena (metonymies, symbols, cultural models, stereotypes) lead to the discursive construal of a common element that brings the nation together. The central idea is that metaphor use must be questioned to lay bare the processes and the discursive power behind them. The chapters examine a range of contemporary and historical, monomodal and multimodal discourses, including politicians’ discourse, presidential speeches, newspapers, TV series, Catholic homilies, colonialist discourse, and various online sources. The approaches taken include political science, international relations, cultural studies, and linguistics. All contributions feature discursive constructivist views of metaphor, with clear sociocultural grounding, and the notion of metaphor as a framing device in constructing various aspects of nations and national identity. The volume will appeal to scholars in discourse analysis, metaphor studies, media studies, nationalism studies, and political science.

Metaphor and Metonymy in the Digital Age

Metaphor and Metonymy in the Digital Age PDF Author: Marianna Bolognesi
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company
ISBN: 9027262292
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 263

Book Description
This book describes methods, risks, and challenges involved in the construction of metaphor and metonymy digital repositories. The first part of this volume showcases established and new projects around the world in which metaphors and metonymies are harvested and classified. The second part provides a series of cognitive linguistic studies focused on highlighting and discussing theoretical and methodological risks and challenges involved in building these digital resources. The volume is a result of an interdisciplinary collaboration between cognitive linguists, psychologists, and computational scientists supporting an overarching idea that metaphor and metonymy play a central role in human cognition, and that they are deeply entrenched in recurring patterns of bodily experience. Throughout the volume, a variety of methods are proposed to collect and analyze both conceptual metaphors and metonymies and their linguistic and visual expressions.

Where Metaphors Come from

Where Metaphors Come from PDF Author: Zoltán Kövecses
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 019022486X
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 233

Book Description
In Where Metaphors Come From, Zoltán Kövecses proposes a metaphorical grounding that augments and refines conceptual metaphor theory according to which conceptual metaphors are based on our bodily experience. While this is certainly true in many cases of metaphor, the role of the body in metaphor creation can and should be reinterpreted, and, consequently, the body can be seen as just one of the several contexts from which metaphors can emerge (including the situational, discourse, and conceptual-cognitive contexts) - although perhaps the dominant or crucial one. Kövecses is a leader in CMT, and his argument in this book is more in line with what has been discovered about the nature of human cognition in recent years; namely, that human cognition is grounded in experience in multiple ways - embodiment, in a strict sense, being just one of them (see Barsalou, 2008; Gibbs, 2006; Pecher and Zwaan, 2005). In light of the present work, this is because cognition, including metaphorical cognition, is grounded in not only the body, but also in the situations in which people act and lead their lives, the discourses in which they are engaged at any time in communicating and interacting with each other, and the conceptual knowledge they have accumulated about the world in the course of their experience of it.

The Moral Metaphor System

The Moral Metaphor System PDF Author: Ning Yu
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192691368
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 304

Book Description
This book investigates moral metaphors in English and Chinese, applying conceptual metaphor theory to a comparative study of the linguistic manifestation of the moral metaphor system rooted in the domains of bodily and physical experience. Ning Yu sheds light on the metaphorical nature of moral cognition and how it is systematically manifested in language, and explores the potential commonalities that define moral cognition in general, as well as the differences that characterize distinct cultures. The work investigates moral cognition at the cultural level as reflected in language, based on linguistic evidence from both English and Chinese and, to a limited extent, multimodal evidence from the corresponding cultures. The moral metaphor system is taken to consist of three major subsystems, referred to as "physical", "visual", and "spatial". These subsystems are clusters of conceptual metaphors, whose source concepts are from domains of embodied experiences in the physical world, and which are formulated in contrastive categories with bipolar values for the target concepts of moral and immoral. The study is characterized by two keywords: system and systematicity: The former refers to the fact that metaphors (conceptual and linguistic) are connected within networks, and the latter to the need for those metaphors to be studied in such networks.

Visual Metaphor and Embodiment in Graphic Illness Narratives

Visual Metaphor and Embodiment in Graphic Illness Narratives PDF Author: Elisabeth El Refaie
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190678194
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 200

Book Description
Metaphors help us understand abstract concepts, emotions, and social relations through the concrete experience of our own bodies. Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT), which dominates the field of contemporary metaphor studies, is centered on this claim. According to this theory, correlations in the way the world is perceived in early childhood (e.g., happy/good is up, understanding is seeing) persist in our conceptual system, influencing our thoughts throughout life at a mostly unconscious level. What happens, though, when ordinary embodied experience is disrupted by illness? In this book, Elisabeth El Refaie explores how metaphors change according to our body's alteration due to disease. She analyzes visual metaphor in thirty-five graphic illness narratives (book-length stories about disease in the comics medium), re-examining embodiment in traditional CMT and proposing the notion of "dynamic embodiment." Building on recent strands of research within CMT and engaging relevant concepts from phenomenology, psychology, semiotics, and media studies, El Refaie demonstrates how the experience of our own bodies is constantly adjusting to changes in our individual states of health, socio-cultural practices, and the modes and media by which we communicate. This fundamentally interdisciplinary work also proposes a novel classification system of visual metaphor, based on a three-way distinction between pictorial, spatial, and stylistic metaphors. This approach will enable readers to advance knowledge and understanding of phenomena involved in shaping our everyday thoughts, interactions, and behavior.

Metaphors for, in and of Education Research

Metaphors for, in and of Education Research PDF Author: Andy Davies
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443867306
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 245

Book Description
Metaphors for, in and of Education Research draws on a variety of philosophical, theoretical and methodological approaches exploring metaphors as instruments for describing, understanding and inspiring education research. Key themes addressed by authors in this collection include: how metaphors provide new understandings of the philosophical assumptions underlying education research; how metaphors provide new perspectives on methodological issues in education research; and how metaphors evoke cognitive, affective and volitional responses to the experience of conducting or participating in education research. The book includes chapters written by academics with experience in various education sectors including middle, high school and tertiary education. Areas of academic expertise include doctoral study, literacy and learning, special education, educational partnerships and leadership, and applied linguistics.

Metaphors and Analogies in Sciences and Humanities

Metaphors and Analogies in Sciences and Humanities PDF Author: Shyam Wuppuluri
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030906884
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 596

Book Description
In this highly-interdisciplinary volume, we systematically study the role of metaphors and analogies in (mis)shaping our understanding of the world. Metaphors and Analogies occupy a prominent place in scientific discourses, as they do in literature, humanities and at the very level of our thinking itself. But when misused they can lead us astray, blinding our understanding inexorably. How can metaphors aid us in our understanding of the world? What role do they play in our scientific discourses and in humanities? How do they help us understand and skillfully deal with our complex socio-political scenarios? Where is the dividing line between their use and abuse? Join us as we explore some of these questions in this volume.

Metaphors & Analogies

Metaphors & Analogies PDF Author: Rick Wormeli
Publisher: Stenhouse Publishers
ISBN: 1571107584
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 186

Book Description
Metaphors show students how to make connections between the concrete and the abstract, prior knowledge and unfamiliar concepts, and language and image. But teachers must learn how to use metaphors and analogies strategically and for specific purposes, helping students discover and deconstruct effective comparisons. Metaphors & Analogies is filled with provocative illustrations of metaphors in action and practical tips.